Lycium Barbarum (Goji) Polysaccharide Research
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Oct; 31(19):1603-7.
Studies on extraction, isolation and composition of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides
Tian M, Wang M.
School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the extraction, isolation and composition of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides (LBP). METHOD: LBP was extracted from L. barbarum with water, isolationed and purified by DEAE ion-exchange cellulose and gel chromatography, and their structural composition was studied by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis, GC, amino acid automatic analysis, etc. RESULT: Pure LBP has four water solubie polysaccharides, M W was 1.524 x 10(5). LBP was composed of 6 kinds of monosaccharides (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Man, Gal and Glc), galacturonic acid and 18 kinds of amino acids. CONCLUSION: LBP is a kind of complex polysaccharides consisting of acidic heteropolysaccharides and polypeptide or protein, and LBP has Glycan-O-Ser glycopeptide structures.
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998 Jul;33(7):512-6.
Isolation, purification and physico-chemical properties of immunoactive constituents from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. [Goji]
Huang L, Lin Y, Tian G, Ji G.
Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Shanghai 200032.
Three glycoconjugates, LbGp3, LbGp4 and LbGp5, were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Molecular weights of LbGp3, LbGp4 and LbGp5 were 9.25 x 10(4), 21.48 x 10(4) and 2.37 x 10(4), respectively. Carbohydrate contents of LbGp3, LbGP4 and LbGp5 were 93.6%, 85.6%, 8.6%, respectively. LbGp3 was composed of Ara and Gal in a molar ratio of 1:1. LbGp4 was composed of Ara, Gal, Rha and Glc in a molar ratio of 1.5:2.5:0.43:0.23. LbGp5 was composed of Rha, Ara, Xyl, Gal, Man and Glc in a molar ratio of 0.33:0.52:0.42:0.94:0.85:1. Elemental analysis of N contents: LbGp3 0.83%, LbGp4 1.72%, LbGp5 9.58%. The linkage between the glycan and protein may be of O-linkage in LbGp4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2000 Mar 30;29(2):115-7.
Isolation and purification of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides and its anti-fatigue effect
Luo Q, Yan J, Zhang S.
Department of Hygiene, Hubei Medical University, Wuhan 430071, China.
A purified component of lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP-X) was isolated from lycium barbarum L. by DEAE ion-exchange cellulose and sephacryl gel chromatography. LBP-X was tested on five different doses (5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1.d-1) in mice. The results showed that LBP-X induced a remarkable adaptability to exercise load, enhanced resistance and accelerated elimination of fatigue. LBP-X could enhance the storage of muscle and liver glycogen, increase the activity of LDH before and after swimming, decrease the increase of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after strenuous exercise, and accelerate the clearance of BUN after exercise. The dosage of LBP-X 10 mg.kg-1.d-1 was the best amount among the five tested doses.
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001 Mar;36(3):196-9.
Studies on the active polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji]
Duan CL, Qiao SY, Wang NL, Zhao YM, Qi CH, Yao XS.
AIM: To investigate the structures and immunomodulation activity of four homogeneous polysaccharides: LBP 1a-1, LBP 1a-2, LBP 3a-1 and LBP 3a-2 isolated from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji] brought from Zhongning County, Ningxia Province. METHODS: Their molecular weights, sugar component (constituents) and their linkages were determined by gel permeation chromatography, acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation and NMR spectrum. The activity of immunomodulation was evaluated with splenocyte proliferation by [3H]-TDR incorperation, in vitro. RESULTS: Four polysaccharides with molecular weights 11.5 x 10(4), 9.4 x 10(4), 10.3 x 10(4) and 8.2 x 10(4), were shown to enhance splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA. LBP 1a-1 and LBP 1a-2 were alpha-(1-->6)-D-glucans. LBP 3a-1 and LBP 3a-2 were found to be a-(1-->4)-D-polygalacturonans. CONCLUSION: The four polysaccharides were first isolated from this plant. Polysaccharides with main chain of alpha-(1-->4)-D-polygalacturonans showed stronger immunomodulation activity.
Life Sci. 2004 Nov 26;76(2):137-49.Click here to read
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts from Lycium barbarum [Goji].
Luo Q, Cai Y, Yan J, Sun M, Corke H.
College of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, PR China.
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium barbarum [Goji] fruit water decoction, crude polysaccharide extracts (crude LBP), and purified polysaccharide fractions (LBP-X) in alloxan-induced diabetic or hyperlipidemic rabbits were investigated through designed sequential trials and by measuring blood glucose and serum lipid parameters. Total antioxidant capacity was also assessed using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. It was found that the three Lycium barbarum fruit extracts/fractions could significantly reduce blood glucose levels and serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations and at same time markedly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels after 10 days treatment in tested rabbits, indicating that there were substantial hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Hypoglycemic effect of LBP-X was more significant than those of water decoction and crude LBP, but its hypolipidemic effect seemed to be weaker. Total antioxidant capacity assay showed that all three Lycium barbarum [Goji] extracts/fractions possessed antioxidant activity. However, water and methanolc fruit extracts and crude polysaccharide extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than purified polysaccharide fractions because crude extracts were identified to be rich in antioxidants (e.g., carotenoids, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine, nicotinic acid). Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides (glycocojugates), containing several monosaccharides and 17 amino acids, were major bioactive constituents of hypoglycemic effect. Both polysaccharides and vitamin antioxidants from Lycium barbarum [Goji] fruits were possible active principles of hypolipidemic effect.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2002 Apr;31(2):118-9.
Study on the composition of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides and its effects on the growth of weanling mice
Zhang M, Wang J, Zhang S.
Food Science Department, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.
In order to observe the effects of lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides (LBP-4) on the growth of weanling mice and the absorption of some metals in the their body, the composition of LBP-4 is determined. 120 female weanling mice are divided in random into 4 groups. They are fed on LBP-4 at the dose of 5, 10 and 20 mg/(kg.d) respectively. The taken feed weight and the body weight of mice are recorded everyday. After 21 days, the content of calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in pygal muscles and femora of mice is determined. The results showed that LBP-4 is composed of six kinds of monosaccharides that can enhance food conversion rate and the content of zinc and iron in body of mice, and reduce the body weight.
Zhong Yao Cai. 1999 May;22(5):246-9.
Effects of pure and crude Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides on immunopharmacology
Luo Q, Yan J, Zhang S.
Hubei Medical University, Wuhan 430071.
Effects of pure Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides (LBP-X) on immunological activity were compared with crude LBP. The pure LBP-X were divided into different doses, lower doses (5-20 mg/kg.d) of pure LBP-X showed a remarkable effect on immunological enhancement. Especially, LBP-X 10 mg/kg.d had a highly significance difference compared with crude LBP on immune indices in mice. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides have the best pharmacological effect when it was the best dose.
Carbohydr Res. 2001 Mar 9;331(1):95-9.
Structural characterization of the glycan part of glycoconjugate LbGp2 from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji]
Peng X, Tian G.
State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic & Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Academia Sinica, People's Republic of China.
A glycoconjugate with pronounced immunoactivity, designated as LbGp2, was isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. [goji] and purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration. Its carbohydrate content is up to 90.71% composed of Ara, Gal and amino acids. The molecular weight is 68.2 kDa as determined by size exclusive chromatography (SEC). The complete structure of the repeat unit of the glycan of LbGp2 was elucidated based on glycosidic linkage analysis, total acid hydrolysis, partial acid hydrolysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. According to the experiments, the glycan possesses a backbone consisting of (1-->6)-beta-galactosyl residues, about fifty percent of which are substituted at C-3 by galactosyl or arabinosyl groups and the major nonreducing end being made of Ara (1 -->.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2006 Nov 17;
Protective effect of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides on streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in rats.
School of Food Engineering of XingJang Agriculture College, Urumqi city, XinJiang 832000, PR China.
Fruit from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji] in the family Solanaceae is well-known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) have been identified as one of the active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. We isolated polysaccharides from dried Lycium barbarum [goji] fruits by boiling water extraction. In the study, 50 animals were divided into two groups: a nondiabetic control (n=10) and a diabetic group (n=40). Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg BW; Sigma, USA) freshly dissolved in a 0.1mol/L citrate buffer (pH 4.5) into the intraperitonium. The normal control rats and the untreated diabetic control rats were only injected with the citrate buffer. Treated diabetic rats were administrated with LBP in drinking water through oral gavage for 30 days. At the end of experiment, oxidative indice in blood, liver and kidney of all groups were examined. The results show that administration of LBP can restore abnormal oxidative indice near normal levels. Therefore, we may assume that LBP is effective in the protection of liver and kidney tissue from the damage of STZ-induced diabetic rats and that the LBP may be of use as a antihyperglycemia agent.
Life Sci. 2006 Jul 10;79(7):613-21. Epub 2006 Mar 6.
Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides: Protective effects against heat-induced damage of rat testes and H2O2-induced DNA damage in mouse testicular cells and beneficial effect on sexual behavior and reproductive function of hemicastrated rats.
Luo Q, Li Z, Huang X, Yan J, Zhang S, Cai YZ.
College of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, PR China.
Lycium barbarum [Goji], a famous Chinese medicinal herb, has a long history of use as a traditional remedy for male infertility. Polysaccharides are the most important functional constituent in L. barbarum fruits. We systematically investigated the effect of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on rat testis damage induced by a physical factor (43 degrees C heat exposure), on DNA damage of mouse testicular cells induced by a chemical factor (H2O2), and on sexual behavior and reproductive function of hemicastrated male rats. The results showed that LBP provided a protective effect against the testicular tissue damage induced by heat exposure. When compared with negative control, a suitable concentration of LBP significantly increased testis and epididymis weights, improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and raised sexual hormone levels in the damaged rat testes. LBP had a dose-dependent protective effect against DNA oxidative damage of mouse testicular cells induced by H2O2. LBP improved the copulatory performance and reproductive function of hemicastrated male rats, such as shortened penis erection latency and mount latency, regulated secretion of sexual hormones and increased hormone levels, raised accessory sexual organ weights, and improved sperm quantity and quality. The present findings support the folk reputation of L. barbarum fruits as an aphrodisiac and fertility-facilitating agent, and provide scientific evidence for a basis for the extensive use of L. barbarum fruits [Goji] as a traditional remedy for male infertility in China.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2001 Nov;30(6):333-5.
Inhibition the growth of human leukemia cells by Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide
Gan L, Wang J, Zhang S.
School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.
The effect and the mechanism of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP-X) on inhibiting the growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells were examined. LBP-X(20, 100, 500, 1000 mg/L) could inhibit the growth of HL-60 cells in dose-dependent manner and decrease the membrane fluidity of the cell. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA from the cells treated with LBP-X revealed a "DNA ladder" and positive TUNEL test. The results showed that the apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by LBP-X maybe its important mechanism on anti-tumorgenesis.
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001 Aug;36(8):599-602.
Physico-chemical properties and activity of glycoconjugate LbGp2 from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji]
Peng XM, Wang ZF, Tian GY.
Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Shanghai 200032, China.
AIM: To isolate and purify a glycoconjugate (LbGp2) from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. [Goji] and study its immunoactivity and antioxidative activity. METHODS: By means of gel permeation chromatography, LbGp2 was purified. Based on HPLC, CE, GC, SEC and component analysis and so on, its physico-chemical properties were studied. RESULTS: Molecular weights of LbGp2 was 68.2 ku and its carbohydrate content was up to 90.7%. Component analysis showed that it composed of Ara and Gal in a molar ratio of 3:4, and 18 kinds of amino acids. The immunologic function and bioactivity of Lbp2 has been studied preliminarily. Lbp2 was shown to increase rate of phagocyticaction and phagocytic index, promote lymphocyte translation and accelerate the production of serum hemolysin. LbGp2 has distinct effect of antioxidation and the superoxide anion produced by DMSO-NaOH system was scavenged effectively. CONCLUSION: LbGp2 was shown to be a kind of homogeneous glycoconjugate with good immunoactivity and antioxidative activity.
Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Dec;27(12):948-50.
Study on the extraction process of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum [Goji]
Zhi F, Zheng W, Chen P, He M.
Wuhan Industry College, Wuhan.
OBJECTIVE: To choose the optimum extration process of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji] METHODS: The optimal water extration process is selected with the orthogonal design. The yield and the content of polysaccharide were used to evaluate the factor levels. RESULTS: The ideal extraction process is: the polysaccharide is extracted with water for 3 times,with solvent volume 8 times amount each time (10 times amount for the first time), extraction time 1 h each time and stired 10 min each hour. CONCLUSION: The experimental results provide the basis for the water extration process of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum L. [Goji]
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2003 Nov;32(6):599-601.
Study on protective action of lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides on DNA imparments of testicle cells in mice
Huang X, Yang M, Wu X, Yan J.
School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.
To investigate the protective effect of lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides (LBP) on DNA oxidative damage of testicle cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to detect the breakage of DNA strand and analyze LBP protection against oxidation damage in testicle cells treated by different concentrations of LBP for 1 hour firstly, and then cultured with 100 mumol/L H2O2 for 25 min. The results showed that a certain moment action by H2O2 could induce the breakage of DNA strand. The pretreatment of LBP (50, 100, 200, 400 micrograms/ml) significantly decreased the frequencies of cells with tail moment and the tail length of testicle cells treated by H2O2. It is suggested that LBP itself could not cause the oxidation damage, but it could clean out the free-radical and restrain the DNA damage of testicle cells caused by the oxidative stress.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2005 Apr;20(2):155-62.
Therapeutic effects of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP) on irradiation or chemotherapy-induced myelosuppressive mice.
Gong H, Shen P, Jin L, Xing C, Tang F.
Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing 100050, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP) on irradiation- or chemotherapy-induced myelosuppressive mice and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: In an in vivo experiment, mice were irradiated with a sublethal dose of 550 cGy X-ray or intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with carboplatin (CB) 125 mg/kg to produce severe myelosuppression. Four to 6 hours after the irradiation or injection, mice were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with LBP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) daily from day 0 to day 6. Blood samples were collected from the tail veins of mice at different time points, and peripheral white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), and platelet (PLT) counts were monitored. In an in vitro experiment, human PBMCs were incubated with LBP at different concentrations in combination with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was tested. RESULTS: Compared to the control, 50 mg/kg LBP (LBP-L) significantly ameliorated the decrease of peripheral WBC of irradiated myelosuppressive mice on day 13, and 100 mg/kg LBP (LBP-M) did the same on days 17 and 21. All dosages of LBP significantly ameliorated the decrease of peripheral RBC of irradiated myelosuppressive mice on days 17 and 25. Two-hundred mg/kg LBP (LBP-H) and LBP-M significantly enhanced peripheral PLT counts of irradiated myelosuppressive mice on days 10, 13, 17, and 21, as did LBP-L on days 13 and 17. All dosages of LBP increased peripheral WBC counts of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppressive mice to some extent, but there was no statistic difference when compared to the control. LBP-H significantly ameliorated the decrease of peripheral RBC of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppressive mice on days 13, 15, 17, and 20, and LBP-M and LBP-L did the same on days 15 and 17. All dosages of LBP significantly enhanced peripheral PLT counts of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppressive mice on days 7 and 10, as did LBP-H on days 13, 15, and 17, and LBP-M on days 13 and 15. Also, LBP could obviously stimulate human PBMCs to produce G-CSF. CONCLUSIONS: LBP promoted the peripheral blood recovery of irradiation or chemotherapy-induced myelosuppressive mice, and the effects may be the result of the stimulation of PBMCs to produce G-CSF.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000 Aug;25(8):481-3.
Extraction and isolation of active component for inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation in vitro from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. [Goji]
Liu XL, Sun JY, Li HY, Zhang L, Qian BC.
Institute of Materia Medica, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences1, Hangzhou 310013, Zhejiang, China.
OBJECTIVE: To extract and isolate the active component inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation in vitro from the fruit of Lycium barbarum [Goji]. METHOD: The active components of the fruit of L. barbarum were extracted by water, 95% ethanol, 50% ethanol respectively. Then, ethanol extract was extracted with acetone and n-butanol and isolated by SiO2 column and purified by TLC to obtain the active component. The chemical structure of active component was identified by the spectral analysis. MTT assay was used to compare the inhibition activity(IC50) of PC3 cells proliferation of the all extracts. RESULT: According IC50, the most active component among all extracts isolated from the fruit of L. barbarum isscopoletin. CONCLUSION: Scopoletin is the active component of the fruit of L. barbarum [Goji] for inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation.
Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Aug;27(8):599-600.
The study on the effect of LBP on cleaning hydroxygen free radical by EPR technique
Ni H, Qing D, Kaisa S, Lu J.
Xinjiang Institute of Medical and Minorities Materia Medical, Urumqi.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharides (LBP) on cleaning hydroxygen free radical. METHODS: EPR. RESULT: When the concentrations of LBP were 0.25 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml, the cleaning rates of LBP to hydroxygen free radical were 18.64% and 87.29%. CONCLUSION: LBP in low concentration can obviously clean hydroxygen free radical, but its clearance ability in high concentration descends.
J Exp Ther Oncol. 2004 Oct;4(3):181-7.
Therapeutic effects of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP) on mitomycin C (MMC)-induced myelosuppressive mice.
Hai-Yang G, Ping S, Li JI, Chang-Hong X, Fu T.
Institute of Basic Medicine, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. email@example.com
AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP) on mitomycin C (MMC)-induced myelosuppressive mice. METHODS: Mice were intravenously injected with MMC 150 mg/kg for two consecutive days from day -1 to day 0 to produce severe myelosuppression, and then treated by s.c. injections of LBP (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) from days 0 to 6. Blood samples were collected from the tail veins of mice on days 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24 and 27, and peripheral white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) and platelet counts (PLT) etc. were monitored. RESULTS: LBP at 100 mg/kg (LBP-L) on day 14 and LBP at 200 mg/kg (LBP-H) on days 10, 14, 17, 19 and 21, significantly ameliorated the decrease of peripheral RBC, HGB and hematocrit (HCT) of myelosuppressive mice compared to the control. LBP-L on days 12 and days 14 and LBP-H on days 10, 12, 14, 17, 19 and 21, significantly enhanced peripheral PLT recovery of myelosuppressive mice compared to the control. LBP-H on days 12, 17, 19 and 21, significantly inhibited the increase of mean platelet volume (MPV) of myelosuppressive mice compared to the control. LBP showed no obviously effect on neutropenia induced in mice by MMC. CONCLUSION: LBP is effective on peripheral RBC and PLT recovery of MMC-induced myelosuppressive mice.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2003 Sep;16(3):267-75.
Inhibiting effects of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide and Lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide on nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model.
Deng HB, Cui DP, Jiang JM, Feng YC, Cai NS, Li DD.
Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibiting effects and mechanism of achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lycium barbarum [Goji] polysaccharide (LBP) on nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model. METHODS: Serum AGE levels were determined by AGE-ELISA, MTT method was used to determine lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 activity was determined by a bioassay method. Spontaneous motor activity was used to detect mouse's neuromuscular movement, latency of step-through method was used to examine learning and memory abilities of mouse, colormetric assay was used to determine hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin, pyrogallol autoxidation method was used to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of erythrocytes. RESULTS: Decreased levels of serum AGE, hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin and spontaneous motor activity in D-galactose mouse aging model were detected after treated with ABP or LBP, while lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 activity, learning and memory abilities, SOD activity of erythrocytes, were enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: ABP and LBP could inhibit nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model in vivo and ABP has a better inhibiting effect than LBP.
Se Pu. 2005 Jul;23(4):415-7.
Resolution of carotenoid isomers in Lycium barbarum L. [Goji] by heuristic evolving latent projection
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Lycium barbarum L. [Goji], a kind of traditional Chinese herb, is found to have bioactivities such as anticancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic and immunological activities. In both in vitro and in vivo studies, the carotenoids were found to be a class of the effective compounds. The carotenlysoids in Lycium barbarum L. [Goji] were separated by high perforance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Seven peaks were obtained by HPLC on a C18 column with acetonitrile-methylene chloride (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. Most of the peaks that had been validated as single peaks in the 2-dimensional chromatography were found to be overlapping peaks. The overlapping chromatographic peaks were resolved by chemometric method--Heuristic Evolving Latent Projection (HELP) based on 3-dimensional data. As an example, the chromatogram and UV spectra of 4 isomers were obtained by resolving an overlapping peak. These results showed that the combination of chemometric methods and modern analytical instruments provides an effective method for the analysis of complex systems such as isomers.
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